Monthly Archives: July 2014

Sale of immovable property and the national credit act

CIt often happens during a sale of immovable property that the parties agree to a deferred payment of the purchase price. The purchaser will then pay the purchase price in instalments and the seller will charge interest on the outstanding amount from time to time. Sometimes the parties even agree to the registration of a bond over the property to secure the payment of the purchase price.

What the parties don’t keep in mind, however, is that this agreement between the parties constitutes a credit transaction as defined in the National Credit Act (hereinafter called the Act) and that in certain circumstances the seller will have to register as a credit provider in terms of the Act.

To establish if the Act will be applicable and if the seller should register as a credit provider one should carefully consider the following:

1. The Act will apply to all written credit agreements between parties dealing at arm’s length. This is probably to curb underhand dealings between family members at the peril of other third parties.

2. Arm’s length transactions are not defined in the Act but they exclude, for example, transactions between family members who are dependent or co-dependent on each other and any arrangement where each party is not independent of the other and does not strive to obtain the utmost possible advantage out of the transaction.

The Act does not apply where:

1. The consumer is a juristic person whose annual turnover or asset value is more than R1m;

2. The purchaser is the State or an organ of the State;

3. A large agreement (i.e. more than R250 000, such as a mortgage) is entered into with a juristic person whose asset value or turnover is less than R1m.

A credit agreement includes a credit facility, credit transaction and credit guarantee or a combination of these. The relevance is the following:

1. A credit facility requires fees or interest to be paid;

2. A credit transaction does not necessarily require interest or fees to be paid. An instalment agreement would suffice to qualify as a credit transaction.

3. An instalment agreement is defined and relates only to the sale of movable property.

4. A credit transaction also includes any other agreement where payment of an amount owed is deferred and interest or fees are charged.

A mortgage agreement qualifies as a credit transaction [Section 8(4)(d)] and the importance is that mortgage is defined in the Act as a pledge of immovable property that serves as security for a mortgage agreement. Mortgage agreement is also defined as a credit agreement secured by a pledge of immovable property.

Section 40 of the Act requires one to register as a credit provider should you have at least 100 credit agreements as credit provider OR if the total principal debt under all credit agreements exceeds R500 000. Principal debt means the amount deferred and does not include interest or other fees.

It follows that if you sell your home to an individual in a private sale (i.e. where he does not get a bond from the bank) and you register a bond as security, you have to register as a credit provider UNLESS the principal debt is less than R500 000 or the buyer is a juristic person and the price is more than R250 000.

The implications for the seller could be far-reaching if he is not registered, as the agreement will be unlawful and void, and a court must order that:

1. The credit agreement is void as from the date the agreement was entered into;

2. The credit provider must refund to the purchaser any money paid by the purchaser under the credit agreement, together with interest;

3. All the purported rights of the credit provider under the credit agreement to recover any money paid or goods delivered to, or on behalf of the purchaser in terms of the agreement, are either cancelled or forfeited to the State.

The application form to register as a credit provider and also the calculation of the registration fee that is payable to the National Credit Regulator (NCR) can be found on the NCR’s website. If the seller has not registered by the time he enters into the loan agreement he may still register within 30 days after entering into the loan agreement.

Sellers, be careful when you enter into these types of agreements, as non-compliance with the Act could be a costly exercise.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.

Usufruct and capital gains tax

BWhat is a usufruct?

“A usufruct provides to the usufructuary a right of use of property or assets, lifelong or for a specific period, but the usufructuary does not acquire ownership of the relevant property or assets.”

Usufruct is often applied as part of estate planning in order to save on Estate duty, as the calculated value of the usufruct qualifies as deduction for Estate duty, should the usufructuary be the surviving spouse. E.g. a woman may bequeath her property to her son provided that her spouse has lifelong usufruct from it.

Obviously this kind of bequest may create problems, as the son is not able to utilise the property for personal use or rent it out as long as his father is still alive. If we talk about agricultural property the problems escalate and the practical administration of the usufruct can result in many a headache.

These issues are, however, of a personal nature and our opinion is that the root of the problem is actually the accountability of Capital Gains Tax which will revert to the owner when the property is eventually sold.

The value of the usufruct when it is created is recovered from the market value of the property in order to determine the bare property value. This calculated value will then represent the base cost of the property when it is eventually sold.


I, TOUGH TINA, bequeath my immovable property to my son, LITTLE JOHN, subject to the lifelong usufruct of my spouse, BIG JOHN. BIG JOHN is thus the usufructuary and LITTLE JOHN the bare owner.

Suppose the value of the property for the purpose of this example is R1 million. The usufruct value is calculated by capitalising R1 million allowing for BIG JOHN’s life expectancy (according to tables) and multiplying it by 12% (or a % as approved by SARS), in other words R1 million x 6,74206 x 12% = R809 047.

The bare property value at the death of TOUGH TINA is thus R1 million minus R809 047 = R190 953. Should LITTLE JOHN sell the property at R1.5 million after BIG JOHN’s death, taxable Capital Gains will potentially amount to R1 309 047 on which tax is payable.

We are not in principle against usufruct, but it is clear that costs and the influence of Capital Gains Tax on usufruct should be studied thoroughly before considering such a stipulation in your will.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.

Ten tips for small business owners during tough financial times

AWhen the economy is slow, small business owners struggle to survive, many for the first time. Financial problems consume valuable time and business resources, yet must be dealt with proactively. Use the resources your banker provides; he has the expertise and cares about your business and its financial well-being. Once you have read these tips and you think you need help, call your banker and ask for advice.

1. In tough times cash is king. Have a close look at every purchase you need to make, and decide if it is worth the money. Will the product generate enough cash to pay for itself? If not, don’t buy it.

2. Let your budget show the way. Without a budget you will find it difficult to cope with hard financial times. Adapt it regularly and do the same with your personal expenses. If you don’t keep track of expenses, they will become a bottomless pit into which all your cash will disappear.

3. Look at your business’s financial position and performance objectively. Do you get maximum returns from your investments? Could you sell those that are not making you money? When times are hard, survival is the only goal.

4. Examine how your debt is structured. If you have an imbalance between short term and long term debt you should restructure your long term debt so that you can pay back the short term debt over a longer period. Be careful not to take a loan against long-term assets, except if you are in critical need of money.

5. Prepare for your meeting with your banker. Make sure you have all cash flow and balance sheets and inventories at hand for your banker. That will make your review time more productive. Write down any ideas regarding your financial position and discuss them with your banker.

6. Ask your banker about the Small Business Administration (SBA) guaranteed loan programs. Your banker could be able to restructure your business debt over a longer period if the SBA is prepared to provide a credit guarantee on your loan to the bank. If your business is situated in a qualifying rural area, you may qualify for a guaranteed loan. Ask your banker about any additional resources which may be of use to your business.

7. Review your insurance coverage. Increase your deductibles and your premium will decrease. Items that are low-risk or obsolete should be removed from your inventory list.

8. Examine your life insurance policies. Some whole life policies have provisions that enable you to borrow against the cash surrender value at very low rates, or you could deduct the cost of the premiums from the cash surrender value. Determine whether your life insurance is worth the money or whether you couldn’t get by at a lower cost. Make sure all key personnel in your company have life insurance so that business can continue in any of the key players’ absence.

9. Deal with financial problems immediately. As soon as a financial problem arises, deal with it immediately. Keep your banker informed of any problems and make him part of your inner circle of confidants. Use your team as a soundboard to discuss financial difficulties and brainstorm solutions.

10. Get some perspective. Sometimes you need to get some distance from your work to solve the problems. Take a weekend off or go and watch a movie – whatever you do, leave your worries behind for a short while and focus on something else – it will make you and your business a lot stronger.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.